How to write a Promise/A+ compatible library

I decided to write Adehun after the series of promise posts. Adehun means ‘Promise’ in Yoruba, the language of my West African tribe. After a lot of rewrites, I can say Alhamdulillaah,  Adehun passes all the compliance tests of the promise/tests repo.

And here is how I did it.

1. Promise States & Validity

An object mapping the various states to integers and an isValidStates function to verify that only valid states are accepted.

2. Utils

A couple of helper functions including runAsync (to run functions asynchronously), isObject, isFunction and isPromise helper functions.

3. The Transition function – Gatekeeper for State Transition 

Gatekeeper function; ensures that state transitions occur when all required conditions are met.

If conditions are met, this function updates the promise’s state and value. It then triggers the process function for further processing.

The process function carries out the right action based on the transition (e.g. pending to fulfilled) and is explained later.

function transition (state, value) {
  if (this.state === state ||
    this.state !== validStates.PENDING ||
    !isValidState(state)) {

  this.value = value;
  this.state = state;

4. The Then function

The then function takes in two optional arguments (onFulfill and onReject handlers) and must return a new promise. Two major requirements:

1. The base promise (the one on which then is called) needs to create a new promise using the passed in handlers; the base also stores an internal reference to this created promise so it can be invoked once the base promise is fulfilled/rejected.

2. If the base promise  is settled (i.e. fulfilled or rejected), then the appropriate handler should be called immediately. Adehun.js handles this scenario by calling process in the then function.

function then (onFulfilled, onRejected) {
 var queuedPromise = new Adehun();
 if (Utils.isFunction(onFulfilled)) {
   queuedPromise.handlers.fulfill =

 if (Utils.isFunction(onRejected)) {
   queuedPromise.handlers.reject =


 return queuedPromise;

5. The Process function – Processing Transitions

This is called after state transitions or when the then function is invoked. Thus it needs to check for pending promises since it might have been invoked from the then function.

Process runs the Promise Resolution procedure on all internally stored promises (i.e. those that were attached to the base promise through the then function) and enforces the following Promise/A+ requirements:

1. Invoking the handlers asynchronously using the Utils.runAsync helper (a thin wrapper around setTimeout (setImmediate will also work)).

2. Creating fallback handlers for the onSuccess and onReject handlers if they are missing.

3. Selecting the correct handler function based on the promise state e.g. fulfilled or rejected.

4. Applying the handler to the base promise’s value. The value of this operation is passed to the Resolve function to complete the promise processing cycle.

5. If an error occurs, then the attached promise is immediately rejected.

function process () {
 var that = this,
     fulfillFallBack = function (value) {
       return value;
     rejectFallBack = function (reason) {
       throw reason;

 if (this.state === validStates.PENDING) {

 Utils.runAsync(function () {
   while (that.queue.length) {
     var queuedP = that.queue.shift(),
     handler = null,

       handler = queuedP.handlers.fulfill ||
       handler = queuedP.handlers.reject ||

     try {
       value = handler(that.value);
     } catch (e) {

   Resolve(queuedP, value);

6. The Resolve function – Resolving Promises

This is probably the most important part of the promise implementation since it handles promise resolution. It accepts two parameters – the promise and its resolution value.

While there are lots of checks for various possible resolution values; the interesting resolution scenarios are two – those involving a promise being passed in and a thenable  (an object with a then value).

1. Passing in a Promise value

If the resolution value is another promise, then the promise must adopt this resolution value’s state. Since this resolution value can be pending or settled, the easiest way to do this is to attach a new then handler to the resolution value and handle the original promise therein. Whenever it settles, then the original promise will be resolved or rejected.

2. Passing in a thenable value

The catch here is that the thenable value’s then function must be invoked  only once (a good use for the once wrapper from functional programming). Likewise, if the retrieval of the then function throws an Exception, the promise is to be rejected immediately.

Like before, the then function is invoked with functions that ultimately resolve or reject the promise but the difference here is the called flag which is set on the first call and turns subsequent calls are no ops.

function Resolve(promise, x) {
  if (promise === x) {
    var msg = "Promise can't be value";
    promise.reject(new TypeError(msg));
  else if (Utils.isPromise(x)) {
    if (x.state === validStates.PENDING){
      x.then(function (val) {
        Resolve(promise, val);
      }, function (reason) {
    } else {
      promise.transition(x.state, x.value);
  else if (Utils.isObject(x) ||
           Utils.isFunction(x)) {
    var called = false,

    try {
      thenHandler = x.then;

      if (Utils.isFunction(thenHandler)){,
          function (y) {
            if (!called) {
              Resolve(promise, y);
              called = true;
          }, function (r) {
            if (!called) {
              called = true;
     } else {
       called = true;
   } catch (e) {
     if (!called) {
       called = true;
 else {

7.  The Promise Constructor

And this is the one that puts it all together. The fulfill and reject functions are syntactic sugar that pass no-op functions to resolve and reject.

var Adehun = function (fn) {
 var that = this;

 this.value = null;
 this.state = validStates.PENDING;
 this.queue = [];
 this.handlers = {
   fulfill : null,
   reject : null

 if (fn) {
   fn(function (value) {
     Resolve(that, value);
   }, function (reason) {

I hope this helped shed more light into the way promises work.

AdehunJS on Github.

Liked this post? Here are a couple more exciting posts!

1. The Differences between jQuery Deferreds and the Promises/A+ spec

2. Programming Language Type Systems II

3. Three Important JavaScript Concepts


2 thoughts on “How to write a Promise/A+ compatible library

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s